Reducing Marine Pollution

World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey & Company (2016) The New Plastics Economy — Rethinking the future of plastics

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Reducing Marine Pollution

World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey & Company (2016) The New Plastics Economy — Rethinking the future of plastics

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/EllenMacArthurFoundation_TheNewPlasticsEconomy_Pages.pdf Description This report outlines a fundamental rethink for plastic packaging and plastics in general; it offers a new approach with the potential to transform global plastic packaging materials flows and thereby usher in the New Plastics Economy.

Reducing Marine Pollution

McKinsey & Ocean Conservatory (2015) Stemming the tide: Land-based strategies for a plastic free ocean

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Reducing Marine Pollution

McKinsey & Ocean Conservatory (2015) Stemming the tide: Land-based strategies for a plastic free ocean

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/business%20functions/sustainability%20and%20resource%20productivity/our%20insights/saving%20the%20ocean%20from%20plastic%20waste/stemming%20the%20tide%20full%20report.ashx Description This report offers a number of new-to-the-world insights that is hoped to underpin future debate around and understanding of plastic-waste leakage. It is also hoped that this report will mobilize a diverse set of stakeholders to start down an accelerated path to substantive reductions in plastic-waste leakage.

Reducing Marine Pollution

UNEP (2016) Marine plastic debris & Microplastics, United Nations Environment Programme

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Reducing Marine Pollution

UNEP (2016) Marine plastic debris & Microplastics, United Nations Environment Programme

http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7720/-Marine_plasctic_debris_and_microplastics_Global_lessons_and_research_to_inspire_action_and_guide_policy_change-2016Marine_Plastic_Debris_and_Micropla.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y Description This report by the United Nation Environment Programme report presents both short- and long-term approaches to the problem of marine plastic debris and microplastics. It provides an overview of the latest science and experiences, identifies priority areas of action, and points out areas requiring more research.

Reducing Marine Pollution

Ryan P et al (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364, 1999–2012

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Reducing Marine Pollution

Ryan P et al (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364, 1999–2012

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873010/pdf/rstb20080207.pdf Abstract Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed […]

Reducing Marine Pollution

Wright, S.L., et al., (2013) The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review, Environmental Pollution, 1-10

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Reducing Marine Pollution

Wright, S.L., et al., (2013) The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review, Environmental Pollution, 1-10

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tamara_Galloway2/publication/236096229_The_physical_impacts_of_microplastics_on_marine_organisms_A_review/links/59d89322a6fdcc2aad0d4f69/The-physical-impacts-of-microplastics-on-marine-organisms-A-review.pdf Abstract Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100,000 particles m3. Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of […]

Reducing Marine Pollution

Lebreton L et al (2017) River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans, Nature Communications, 8, 1-10

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Reducing Marine Pollution

Lebreton L et al (2017) River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans, Nature Communications, 8, 1-10

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15611.pdf Abstract Plastics in the marine environment have become a major concern because of their persistence at sea, and adverse consequences to marine life and potentially human health. Implementing mitigation strategies requires an understanding and quantification of marine plastic sources, taking spatial and temporal variability into account. Here we present a global model of plastic […]

Reducing Marine Pollution

Lohr A et al (2017) Solutions for global marine litter pollution, Current Opinion in Environmental Ability, 28: 90-99

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Reducing Marine Pollution

Lohr A et al (2017) Solutions for global marine litter pollution, Current Opinion in Environmental Ability, 28: 90-99

Abstract Since the 1950s the amount of plastics in the marine environment has increased dramatically. Worldwide there is a growing concern about the risks and possible adverse effects of (micro) plastics. This paper reflects on the sources and effects of marine litter and the effects of policies and other actions taken worldwide. Current knowledge offers […]

Reducing Marine Pollution

Jambeck J et al (2015) Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, 367, 768-771

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Reducing Marine Pollution

Jambeck J et al (2015) Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, 367, 768-771

https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/17969/Plastic_waste_inputs_from_land_into_the_ocean.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Abstract Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric […]